Pernahkah Anda mengalami nyeri dada tiba-tiba pada bagian kiri hingga Anda sulit beraktivitas?
Kemungkinan Anda bisa saja terkena sindroma koroner akut.

Apa itu Sindroma Koroner Akut (SKA)?
Sindrom koroner akut (SKA) adalah sebuah kondisi yang melibatkan ketidaknyamanan dada atau gejala lain yang disebabkan oleh kurangnya oksigen ke otot jantung (miokardium).

Penyakit ini hanya diderita oleh orang yang sudah tua. Apakah pernyataan tersebut benar?
Penyataan tersebut tidak benar karena didapatkan data dari Amerika Serikat menunjukkan bahwa sebelum umur 60 tahun didapatkan 1 dari 5 laki-laki dan 1 dari 17 perempuan menderita SKA. Ini berarti bahwa laki-laki mempunyai risiko 2-3 kali lebih besar dari perempuan. Namun demikian, usia sering dihubungkan sebagai faktor determinan terhadap hasil akhir pada kejadian SKA bahwa peningkatan usia dihubungkan dengan peningkatan yang bermakna terhadap hasil akhir klinis.

Apa yang meningkatkan faktor resiko bagi Anda menderita SKA?
Menurut European Societ of Cardiology, berikut ini adalah beberapa faktor resiko dari penyakit SKA:
1. Umur
2. Jenis Kelamin
3. Dislipidemia
4. Diabetes (kencing manis)
5. Merokok
6. Hipertensi
7. Overweight maupun obesitas
Apabila seseorang mempunyai empat faktor risiko tersebut maka kemungkinan besar akan menderita SKA.

Apa saja tanda dan gejala SKA?
Anda akan mengeluhkan nyeri dada yang tipikal (angina tipikal) atau atipikal (angina ekuivalen). Keluhan angina tipikal berupa rasa tertekan/berat daerah retrosternal, menjalar ke lengan kiri, leher, rahang, area interskapular, bahu, atau epigastrium. Keluhan ini dapat berlangsung intermiten/beberapa menit atau persisten (>20 menit). Keluhan angina tipikal sering disertai keluhan penyerta seperti diaphoresis, mual/muntah, nyeri abdominal, sesak napas, dan sinkop (pingsan).

Mengapa bisa terjadi SKA?
Hal ini dikarenakan adanya sumbatan pada pembuluh darah koroner. Untuk lebih jelasnya Anda dapat melihat video berikut ini:

Ada Berapa Jenis SKA? Bagaimana Anda membedakannya?
Jenis SKA ada 3 , yaitu STEMI (ST Elevation Myocard Infarct) , NSTE-ACS (Non ST Elevation- Acute Coronary Syndrome), dan UAP(Unstable Angina Pectoris), perbedaannya dapat kita lihat pada tabel berikut ini:

Bagaimana pengobatan untuk SKA?
Terapi awal untuk pasien SKA sebelum ada hasil pemeriksaan EKG maupun pemeriksaan enzim jantung adalah dengan Morfin, Oksigen, Nitrat, Aspirin.

Lalu apabila hasil EKG sudah keluar dan terdapat hasil ST Elevasi maka penatalaksanaannya data dilakukan seperti gambar berikut ini

Apabila Anda mempunyai pertanyaan, silahkan menghubungi

Daftar Pustaka

1. Shiel WC, Stoppler MC. Dalam: Webster’s new worldTM medical dictionary, 3rded. New Jersey: Wiley
Publishing; 2008.
3. Ceponiene I et all. Association of major cardiovascular risk factors with the development of acute coronary
syndrome in Lithuania. European Heart Journal Supplements (2014) 16 (Supplement A), A80–A83.
4. O’gara et all. 2013 ACCF/AHA guideline for the management of ST-elevation myocardial infarction: a report of
the American College of Cardiology Foundation/American Heart Association Task Force on Practice Guidelines. J
Am Coll Cardiol, 61, e78-140.
5. American Heart Association. 2015. Guidelines 2015 CPR & ECC,p: 61.
6. Perhimpunan Dokter Spesialis Kardiovaskular Indonesia. Pedoman Tatalaksana Sindrom Joroner Akut. 2015, p: 1-


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